Germplasm is the basis of sesame functional genomics research. In total, more than 35000 germplasm resources have been collected and conserved in the plant gene bank worldwide. Seven hundred and five accessions of sesame, which were from Chinese Sesame Gene Bank in Oil Crops Research Institute of Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, had been selected and re-sequenced in an average of 2.6 fold genome coverage. Fifty-six important agronomic traits of these sesame accessions were investigated from May 2013 to October 2014 in China. These sequenced and phenotyped sesame accessions could be extremely valuable materials for sesame functional genomics research. The basic information of these germplasm is listed below.